体育运动中的意识与无意识本体感觉
Conscious and Unconscious Proprioception in Sport
投稿时间:2017-06-23  
DOI:
中文关键词:体育运动  本体感觉  无意识  功能  评价  训练
英文关键词:sport  proprioception  unconscious  function  evaluation  training
基金项目:国家体育总局课题(2015B064)
作者单位E-mail
冯洁 上海体育学院 运动科学学院 fengjiesus@163.com 
任杰 上海体育学院 中国乒乓球学院  
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中文摘要:
      本体感觉在体育运动中起极其重要的作用,而以往的研究对无意识本体感觉有所忽略。对意识和无意识本体感觉的神经机制、功能作用、评价方法、影响因素与训练方法做了较全面的综述。首先,意识和无意识本体感觉在其中枢机制、对刺激的感知及应答方式上存在区别;其次,总结了经典的本体感觉评价方法:感觉阈限测量法、关节角度重建法、力量匹配法、视觉模型法、主动运动区分测试、平衡能力测试和体感诱发电位测量法,其中后面两种方法可以用于评价无意识本体感觉。第三,总结了影响本体感觉敏锐性的年龄、损伤和疲劳、运动经历等因素;最后,在如何提高本体感觉方面,主动运动训练、被动运动训练、本体感觉刺激训练等可以提高意识性本体感觉,本体感觉神经肌肉促进法和扰动训练等可以改善无意识本体感觉。本体感觉还有待更多的研究,尤其是以高水平运动员为对象的研究。
英文摘要:
      Proprioception is very important in sport, but the previous studies did not pay enough attention to unconscious proprioception. The paper sums up comprehensively the neural mechanism, function, evaluation methods, influence factors and training methods of conscious and unconscious proprioception. First, there is a difference between conscious proprioception and unconscious proprioception in central mechanism and the perception and response to stimulus. Secondly, the paper summarizes some classical evaluation methods for proprioception, i.e., sensory threshold measurement, joint angle reconstruction, power matching test, visual model test, active movement differentiation test, balance ability test and somatosensory evoked potential measurement. The last two methods can be used in evaluating unconscious proprioception. Thirdly, it lists the factors of age, injury and fatigue, exercise experience, which can affect proprioceptive sensitivity. In conclusion, active training, passive training and proprioceptive stimulation training can improve conscious proprioception. And proprioceptive neuromuscular promotion and perturbation training can improve unconscious proprioception. More studies are expected on proprioception, especially the researches on the proprioception of the elite athletes.
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