女足运动员Choking心理机制的质性研究
Qualitative Study on the Psychological Mechanism of Female Football Players' Choking
投稿时间:2018-11-12  
DOI:
中文关键词:女足运动员  Choking  心理机制  过程理论
英文关键词:female football player  Choking  psychological mechanism  process theory
基金项目:2018年上海市体育科技“重点备战攻关”项目(18J005);2019年上海市体育科技“重点备战攻关”项目(19J008)
作者单位E-mail
刘书强 上海体育科学研究所 liushuqiang89@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      本研究对上海女足13名运动员进行半结构式访谈,在运动员了解Choking现象的基础上,让运动员描述比赛Choking的过程,从而探究女足运动员发生比赛Choking的心理机制。从访谈结果来看,运动员发生Choking的主要原因是面对比赛压力时受到各种因素的干扰,导致其注意力不能很好地集中在比赛上,干扰信息导致其技术动作的自动化过程受阻,在压力认知和决策的执行动态过程中,由于受到多元因素的影响最终发生Choking。通过对访谈结果进行归纳分析,共归纳出26个原始数据主题,进一步总结出9个高级主题,在9个高级主题的基础上归纳出3个概括性维度,分别是压力来源、压力下的反应以及压力导致的结果,这3个概括性维度对应了Choking的诱因、Choking的表现和 Choking的结果。由此得出以下结论:女足运动员发生Choking的心理机制是赛前来自各方面的干扰因素引发了运动员比赛时生理和心理上的Choking表现,最终导致技战术发挥失常,女足运动员比赛Choking的现象会在队友之间相互“传染”。
英文摘要:
      This study conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 female football players in Shanghai. After learning about the phenomenon of Choking, the athletes were asked to describe their experience of Choking in competition, so as to explore the psychological mechanism of Choking in competition. According to the interviews, the main reason for Choking is that athletes are disturbed by various factors when facing competition pressure, which results in their inability to focus their attention well on the competition. The disturbance blocks the natural proceeding of their technical actions. In the dynamic process of pressure awareness and decision-making, Choking eventually occurs under the influence of multiple factors. With the interview results, a total of 26 topics were located from the original data, and then 9 advanced topics were further summarized, on the basis of which 3 general dimensions were concluded: the source of pressure, the reaction under pressure and the results caused by pressure. These 3 dimensions correspond with the causes, symptoms and results of Choking. Accordingly, it is concluded that the Choking of female football players is resulted from various interference before the competition. The interference triggers their physical and psychological Choking symptoms during the competition, and ultimately leads to the abnormal performance of techniques and tactics. The Choking of female football players in competition will "pass on" to their teammates.
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