生物节律与运动表现
Circadian Rhythm and Sports Performance
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20200201
中文关键词:生物节律起搏点  外周生物钟  昼夜影响  时间特异性  时间型  时差
英文关键词:circadian pacemaker  peripheral clocks  diurnal effects  temporal specificity  chronotype  jet lag
基金项目:
作者单位
康 杰 新泽西学院 健康与运动科学系美国 新泽西州 08628 
刘 畅 上海体育科学研究所上海 200030 
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中文摘要:
      人体内几乎所有的生理生化过程都遵循着生物节律。对于人类而言,视交叉上核根据日出日落调节睡眠-觉醒周期和其他日常生物节律。除其他因素外,这种昼夜变化已被证明对与运动表现有关的关键生理过程具有调节作用。最佳运动状态一般出现在傍晚,与核心体温的最佳状态相一致。核心体温的升高已被证明可以提高能量代谢,改善肌肉适应性,促进肌动蛋白-肌球蛋白的交叉桥接。研究还表明,如果在运动员表现最好的时间段安排训练,可以提升运动员的训练适应性。在研究生物节律对运动表现的影响时,除了考虑昼夜变化外,个人对运动时间(白天或夜间)的偏好也是一个重要因素。经常参加国际比赛的运动员会经历生物节律的改变,这对他们的身体健康和运动表现不利。因此,那些更容易受到时差影响的运动员可以考虑使用适当的应对策略来更快地调整生物节律,确保最佳竞技状态。
英文摘要:
      Almost all physiological and biochemical processes within the human body follow a circadian rhythm. In humans, the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep-wake cycle and other daily biorhythms in line with solar time. Such diurnal variations, among other factors, have been shown to regulate key physiological processes involved in athletic performance. Generally, peak performances have been found to occur in the early evening, coinciding with the peak of core body temperature. The increase in core body temperature has been shown to increase energy metabolism, improve muscle compliance, and facilitate actin-myosin cross-bridging. Research also suggests that if athletes arrange their training sessions at a time of their peak performance, their adaptations to training would be greater. In addition to diurnal variations in physiological processes, the individual preference for daytime or nighttime activities is another important factor that should be taken into account when studying the effect of circadian rhythm on sports performance. Athletes participating in international competitions often experience shifted circadian rhythms that can be detrimental to their health and performance. Thus, those who are more easily affected by jet lag may consider using proper coping strategies to realign their circadian rhythms more quickly.
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