可卡因管制在反兴奋剂实践中的探析:以2021年实施版《世界反兴奋剂条例》为例
Discussion on the Regulation of Cocaine in Anti-Doping Practice: A Case Study of the Approved 2021 World Anti-Doping Code
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20200311
中文关键词:可卡因  非特定物质  严格责任原则  指引作用  世界反兴奋剂条例
英文关键词:cocaine  non-specified substance  the principle of strict liability  directive role  World Anti-Doping Code
基金项目:
作者单位
刘 畅 上海市黄浦区人民法院上海 200003 
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中文摘要:
      2021年实施版《世界反兴奋剂条例》在第五届世界反兴奋剂大会上正式获得通过,并将于2021年1月1日起正式生效。新版条例有关可卡因的规定变化颇多。对可卡因是否应被列为非特定物质,以及可卡因能否提高比赛成绩一直以来存在争议,这些争议对反兴奋剂实践影响颇深。违规背景的多样性使得运动员说明禁用物质来源的难度较大,而不同裁决机构对可卡因争议所持的不同观点易加剧处罚结果的差异化。2021年实施版《世界反兴奋剂条例》对于可卡因等社会毒品的规定的变革使得体育仲裁裁决的指引作用能够得到进一步发挥,同时也避免严格责任原则的严厉性进一步加剧。当然,在未来的反兴奋剂进程中,在不触动政府层面药物管制原则的前提下,变革禁用清单,将可卡因纳入特定物质的范畴,既可缓和有关可卡因的争议,又可增强裁决处理的一致性与稳定性,为运动员规范自身行为提供合理预期。
英文摘要:
      The 2021 World Anti-Doping Code was approved in the Fifth World Conference on Doping in Sport, and will come into force on 1 January 2021. The new version has made quite a few changes in the regulations of cocaine. Continuing controversies about whether cocaine should be classified as non-specified substance, and about whether cocaine can enhance the sports performance have exerted a profound impact on anti-doping practice. The diversity of the violation background makes it difficult for athletes to specify the sources of the prohibited substance, and the different opinions on cocaine held by different institutions tend to exacerbate the disparities in sanction. The approved 2021 World Anti-Doping Code has made changes in the regulations on cocaine and other social drugs, which allows the guiding role of sports arbitration and verdict to be further developed without aggravating the severity of the strict liability principle. In the future fight against doping, modifying the prohibited list and making cocaine specified substance without infringing the government-level drug prohibition, not only can settle the controversies over cocaine, but also can enhance the consistency and stability of sanctions, providing athletes with reasonable expectations to behave themselves.
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