赛前加压训练结合冲刺间歇训练对公路自行车运动员运动能力的影响
Effect of Pre-competition KAASTU Training Combined with Sprint Interval Training on the Performance of Road Cyclists
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20200412
中文关键词:加压训练  冲刺间歇训练  公路自行车  运动能力  赛前
英文关键词:KAASTU training  sprint interval training  road cycling  sport ability  pre-competition
基金项目:
作者单位
唐一丹 云南省体育科学研究所云南 昆明 650041 
屈成刚 云南省体育科学研究所云南 昆明 650041 
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中文摘要:
      目的:比较在赛前训练阶段采用加压训练结合SIT训练与单独SIT训练对公路自行车运动员运动能力的影响。方法:将12名云南省女子公路自行车运动员随机分为两组,在训练前后分别进行身体成分测试、递增负荷测试和Wingate无氧功测试。结果:(1)两组运动员训练前后体重、肌肉量无明显变化,加压组体脂率较训练前差异呈显著性(P<0.05),对照组骨骼肌含量较训练前有显著差异(P<0.05);(2)训练后加压组最大摄氧量相对值、无氧阈心率 、最大心率与每搏输出量较训练前差异非常显著(P<0.01),最大有氧输出功率较训练前差异呈显著性(P<0.05),对照组各指标的变化趋势与加压组相似,但增长幅度较加压组小,无氧阈心率、最大心率较训练前差异呈显著性(P<0.05),每搏输出量较训练前差异呈非常显著性(P<0.01),两组运动员VE均较训练前有所下降;(3)训练后加压组峰值功率、相对峰值功率、平均功率、相对平均功率较训练前差异呈显著性(P<0.05);对照组峰值功率与相对峰值功率较训练前差异呈显著性(P<0.05);平均功率与相对平均功率较训练前稍有下降。结论:(1)赛前3周加压训练结合SIT训练和单纯SIT训练均可引起机体蛋白质分解代谢和降解加速,而导致骨骼肌含量下降;(2)赛前加压训练结合SIT训练和单纯SIT训练均可有效提高公路自行车运动员的有氧运动能力,且加压训练结合SIT训练较单纯SIT训练的增长幅度更明显,训练效果更佳;(3)赛前加压训练结合SIT训练可有效提升公路自行车运动员爆发力水平和无氧耐力水平。
英文摘要:
      Objective: To compare the effects of the pre-competition KAASTU training combined with sprint interval training and the sprint interval training alone on the performance of road cyclists. Methods: 12 female road cyclists from Yunnan Province were randomly divided into two groups. Their body composition test, incremental load test and Wingate anaerobic test were conducted before and after the training. Results: (1) There were no significant changes in body weight and muscle mass between the two groups before and after training. The body fat rate of the experimental group was significantly different from that before training (P < 0.05), while the skeletal muscle mass of the control group was significantly different (P < 0.05); The VO2max/kg, HRAT, HRmax and SV of the KAASTU training group were very significantly different from those before training (P<0.01); and the Aerobic Peak Power Output was significantly different from that before training (P<0.05). The change in each indicator of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group, but with a smaller growth rate. The HRAT and HRmax of the control group were significantly different from those before training (P<0.05). The SV was very significantly different from that before training (P<0.01). The VE of both groups decreased after training. (3) The Ppeak, Ppeak/kg, Pmean, and Pmean/kg of the KAASTU training group after training were significantly different from those before training (P<0.05). For the control group, Ppeak, and Ppeak/kg were significantly different from those before training (P<0.05); while the Pmean and Pmean/kg decreased slightly after training. Conclusions: (1)The 3-weeks KAASTU training combined with SIT training and SIT training alone before the competition both can accelerate protein catabolism and degradation, which lead to the decrease of skeletal muscle mass. (2) Pre-competition KAASTU training combined with SIT training and SIT training alone can effectively improve the aerobic exercise ability of road cyclists. But the growth rate of the KAASTU training combined with SIT training is more obvious than that of the SIT training alone, which can result in a better training effect. (3) Pre-competition KAASTU training combined with SIT training can effectively improve the explosive strength level and anaerobic endurance level of road cyclists.
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