我国优秀女子三人篮球运动员比赛和训练的运动负荷特征比较
A Comparative Study on Characteristics of Sports Load of Chinese Elite Female 3×3 Basketball Players in Competition and Training
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20210114
中文关键词:三人制篮球  女子  优秀运动员  运动负荷
英文关键词:3×3basketball  female  elite athlete  sports load
基金项目:三人篮球国家集训队体能训练与机能监测服务团队项目(三人2019-028)。
作者单位
汪喆 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心),上海 200030 
魏宇婷 上海体育学院,上海 200438 
许佳敏 上海市竞技体育训练管理中心,上海 202150 
李东波 国家体育总局体育科学研究所,北京 100061 。 
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中文摘要:
      目的:通过探索我国女子三人篮球运动项目自身独特的比赛负荷特征,为我国女子三人篮球运动的训练与比赛提供理论和实践参考,指导训练和比赛,以期提升我国女子三人篮球的竞技水平。方法:使用SIMI Scout技战术分析系统和Polar Improve系统,测量和分析我国女子三人篮球队在国际比赛、队内比赛和对抗训练中的运动负荷。结果:在国际比赛中,我国优秀女子三人篮球运动员的单位时间跑动距离要显著低于同场竞技的外国选手;国内比赛中成年优秀选手与青年选手在单位时间跑动距离上没有明显差异;我国优秀女子三人篮球运动员在国际比赛和队内比赛中的单位时间跑动距离也没有明显差异。我国优秀女子三人篮球运动员在正式比赛中的最大心率和平均心率均显著性高于对抗训练,最小心率则无明显差异。在不同速度区域的跑距占比分析中,比赛和对抗训练的跑距占比均随着速度的提升而下降;在速度区1和速度区2中,正式比赛的跑距占比要显著高于对抗训练,而在速度区3和速度区4中,比赛的跑距占比则要显著低于对抗训练。结论:我国优秀三人女子篮球运动员国际大赛中的运动负荷要低于国际高水平运动员;可根据对抗训练和正式比赛的运动负荷特征,对对抗训练的运动负荷进行调整,以期达到正式比赛的预期运动负荷。
英文摘要:
      Objective: The study explores the unique characteristics of competition load of Chinese female 3×3 basketball, and provides theoretical and practical reference for the training and competition of Chinese female 3×3 basketball, so as to improve the competitiveness of Chinese female 3×3 basketball. Methods: SIMI Scou technical and tactical analysis and Polar Improvement system are used to measure and analyze the sports load of Chinese female 3×3 basketball players in international competition, team competition and adversarial training. Results: During international games, the running distance per unit time of elite female 3×3 basketball players in China was significantly lower than that of the foreign players. In domestic competitions, there was no significant difference in the running distance between adult elite players and youngsters. There was no significant difference in the the running distance between the 3×3 Chinese female elite players in the international and in-team games. The HRmax and HRAvg during official games were significantly higher than those in training, but HRmin has no significantly difference. In the analysis of the distance proportion of different speed zones, the distance decreases with the increase of speed during games and training. In Z1 and Z2, the distance proportion in the official games is significantly higher than that in the training, while in Z3 and Z4, the distance proportion is significantly lower than that in the training. Conclusions: The sports load of China's elite female 3x3 basketball players is lower than that of the international high level players during the international games. According to the characteristics of the sports load in the training and the official games, the sports load of the training can be adjusted to reach the expected sports load during the official games.
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