从“孙杨案”谈反兴奋剂规则解释方法
On the Interpretation Method of the Anti-Doping Regulation from "the Sun Yang Case"
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20210202
中文关键词:法律解释方法  反兴奋剂规则  利益衡量  位阶
英文关键词:law interpretation method  anti-doping regulation  balance of interest  ranking
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目(20CTY010)
作者单位
杨楠 苏州大学 王健法学院,江苏 苏州 215006 。 
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中文摘要:
      在世界反兴奋剂机构诉孙杨和国际泳联一案中,双方争论的焦点之一是对《检查与调查国际标准》第5.3.3条及相关条款的解释。国际泳联反兴奋剂听证庭采用了严格的文义解释和体系解释,作出了有利于运动员的裁决。而国际体育仲裁院仲裁庭采用了文义解释和目的解释,认为样本采集人员资质符合规定。根据瑞士联邦最高法院的判例,解释重要国际体育联盟的规则应当遵守对法律规则的解释方法,因此对于反兴奋剂规则条款的解读应遵循“客观解释”,以理解文本的措辞为起点,辅之以其他解释方法。由于不同的规则解释方法之间没有严格的位阶顺序,仲裁员的价值观、法律背景,以及案件的难易程度、影响力等将会影响仲裁员对规则解释方法的选择。解释学上的形式推理无法根除抽象规则适用时的不确定性,适用不同解释方法可能得出相互冲突的结论,这就要求仲裁员运用衡量法则权衡各方利益,提高规则解释的合理性和稳定性。面对反兴奋剂规则文本含糊不清的特殊情形,可以将不利解释规则作为补充适用的解释方法,但必须符合相应的适用条件,放宽对仲裁员自由裁量权的限制。
英文摘要:
      In the case of World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) v. Sun Yang and FINA, one of the focuses of the dispute is the interpretation of article 5.3.3 and relevant clauses of the International Standard for Testing and Investigation(ISTI). FINA Doping Panel adopted strict literal and systematic interpretation, and made a decision in favor of athlete. However, the Court of Arbitration for Sports adopted literal and purposive interpretation, and held that the qualification of sample collection personnel met the requirements. According to the precedents of the Swiss Federal Tribunal, the interpretation of the regulations of major international sports leagues should follow legal interpretation method. Therefore, the interpretation of anti-doping regulations should follow "the objective interpretation", starting from understanding the wording of the text and taking other interpretation methods as supplements. Since there is no strict ranking of different methods, the choice of the arbitrator's interpretation method would be influenced by his value and law background as well as the difficulty and impact of the case. Formal reasoning in hermeneutics cannot eliminate the uncertainty in the application of abstract rules. Different interpretation methods may lead to controversial conclusions. This requires arbitrators to balance the interests of all parties and improve the rationality and stability of regulation interpretation. Contra proferentem can be used as a supplementary interpretation method due to the special situation that the texts of the anti-doping regulations are ambiguous. However, the corresponding application conditions must be met to reduce the restrictions on the discretion of arbitrators.
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