兴奋剂仲裁案件中认定运动员无过错的考量因素探究
The Factors for No-fault Athlete Adjudication in Anti-Doping Arbitration Case
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20210204
中文关键词:体育仲裁  无过错  故意  注意义务
英文关键词:sports arbitration  no-fault  intention  the obligation of caution
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作者单位
虞志波 国税总局宁波市海曙区税务局,浙江 宁波 315040 。 
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中文摘要:
      当前对无过错条款适用的认定因素研究较为零散,全面阐述这些因素有助于增强无过错案件仲裁裁决的权威性。体育仲裁机构在决定是否适用无过错条款减轻对运动员的处罚时,首先会考虑运动员在主观上是否是故意的,其次对于兴奋剂物质进入运动员身体的结果,体育仲裁机构会考量是否具有客观归责于运动员的可能性,也就是运动员是否尽到了极为谨慎的注意义务,同时还会考虑违规运动员长期实施某种合法行为的信赖利益。除此之外,先前判例具有很重要的参考价值,反兴奋剂机构自身的过错也会被考虑在其中,运动员自身的经验同样是重要的影响因素。无过错条款是无重大过错条款适用的基础,二者考量的构成要素本质上相同,区别在于运动员履行的注意义务程度不同。
英文摘要:
      At present, the research on the determining factors of the no-fault clause applicability is relatively piecemeal. A comprehensive interpretation of these factors contributes to enhance the authority of the adjudication for no-fault arbitration cases. When deciding whether to apply the no-fault clause to reduce the punishment to the athletes, the sports arbitration institution will firstly consider whether the athletes are intentional. Secondly, for the result that some doping substances entered the athlete's body, the sports arbitration institution will consider whether there is possibility of objective imputation to the athletes, which means whether the athletes have fulfilled the obligation of utmost caution. At the same time, they will also consider the athlete's trust interests when carrying out certain legal acts for a long time. In addition, the previous legal precedents have very important reference value. The fault of the anti-doping agency itself will also be taken into account. The athlete's own experience is also an important factor to consider. No-fault clause is the basis for the application of no-significant-fault clause. The factors to consider in these two clauses are essentially the same. The distinction between them lies the degree of obligation to which the athletes have to fulfill.
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