世界优秀短道速滑运动员500m滑行轨迹的运动学研究
Research on the Sliding Kinematics Parameters of Elite Short Track Speed Skaters of 500 m
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20220206
中文关键词:短道速滑  500 m  滑行  运动学参数
英文关键词:short track speed skating  500 m  sliding  kinematic parameters
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“科技冬奥”重点专项(2019YFF0301805 );国家重点研发计划“科技冬奥”重点专项(2018YFF0300605)
作者单位
徐文泉 北京航空航天大学 体育部,北京 100191 
王新娜 河北体育学院,河北 石家庄 050041 
李琪 中国科学院 计算技术研究所, 北京 100190 
侯亚丽 山西师范大学 体育学院,山西 太原 030032 国家体育总局体育科学研究所,北京 100061 
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中文摘要:
      目的:通过对现场采集的短道速滑500 m项目的优秀运动员运动视频进行处理,获取相关运动学参数,揭示优秀短道速滑运动员滑行运动学参数特征,为运动员科学训练提供依据。方法:通过单台摄像机定点拍摄获取比赛录像,无须在现场放置框架,利用冰面现有文字和线段进行摄像机空间标定,利用SIMImotion解析软件得到运动员滑行轨迹的像坐标,最后通过射影变换原理获取运动员在冰面上的滑行轨迹等运动学指标。结果:数据显示在第三圈男女平均速度都达到最大,男子最大圈平均速度为14.14 m/s,女子为13.07 m/s。男女直道平均速度、弯道平均速度、入弯瞬时速度和出弯瞬时速度都在第5次达到最大值。男子直道最大平均速度为14.13 m/s,女子为13.13 m/s;男子弯道最大平均速度为14.70 m/s,女子为13.51 m/s;男子入弯最大瞬时速度为14.76 m/s,女子为13.66 m/s;男子出弯道最大瞬时速度为14.21 m/s,女子为13.12 m/s。起跑到第8步时,男女瞬时速度分别达到了8.39 m/s和7.63 m/s,男女步长分别达到2.98 m和2.44 m。结论:(1)利用射影变换原理完成运动员比赛滑行路线的标定,为短道速滑研究提供了一种新方法。(2)优秀短道速滑运动员在500 m滑行中弯道速度贡献大于直道,起跑爆发力对抢位战术影响较大,运动员体能情况对最后两圈影响较大。
英文摘要:
      This paper aims to reveal the characteristics of the sliding kinematic parameters of the excellent short track speed skaters, and provide the basis for the athletes' scientific training by obtaining the relevant kinematic parameters through elite athletes' 500m competition video. The video is obtained by fixed-point shooting of a single camera. The existing space and line segments on the ice surface are used for camera space calibration. The image coordinates of the athlete's sliding track are obtained by SIMI motion analysis software. The athletes' kinematic parameters such as sliding trajectories on the ice are obtained through the principle of projective transformation. The data shows that the average speed of men and women reaches the maximum on the third lap, while the male maximum lap average speed is 14.14 m/s and the feminine is 13.07 m/s. The average speed of straight roads and curve, the instantaneous speed of the incoming bend and exit are all reached the maximum at the 5th time. The maximum average speed of male straight road is 14.13 m/s while the feminine is 13.13 m/s. The maximum average speed of male curve is 14.70 m/s while the feminine is 13.51 m/s. The maximum instantaneous speed of male curve is 14.76 m/s while the feminine is 13.66 m/s. The maximum instantaneous speed of male exit is 14.21 m/s while the feminine is 13.12 m/s. At the start of the 8th step, the instantaneous speed of men and women reach 8.39 m/s and 7.63 m/s while the steps reach 2.98 m and 2.44 m respectively. This study provides a new method for the study of short-track speed skating by using the principle of projective transformation. The speed contribution of elite short track speed skaters in curve is greater than that in straight. The starting explosive force has a greater influence on the position-taking tactics, and the physical condition of athletes has a greater influence on the last two laps.
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