射击/射箭运动员与普通人焦虑状态差异研究
Research on the Differences of AnxietyStat between Shooting/Archery Athletes and Ordinary People
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20220215
中文关键词:运动员  焦虑  广泛性焦虑障碍量表  状态-特质焦虑问卷  膳食纤维
英文关键词:athlete  anxiety  7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale  State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version  dietary fiber.
基金项目:上海市体育科技“备战攻关计划”项目(20J004);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC2000500/03)
作者单位
魏玉环 复旦大学附属上海市第五人民医院 临床营养科,上海 200240 
火少晔 复旦大学附属上海市第五人民医院 临床营养科,上海 200240 
赵蕴华 复旦大学附属上海市第五人民医院 临床营养科,上海 200240 
王利红 复旦大学附属上海市第五人民医院 临床营养科,上海 200240 
薛琨 复旦大学 公共卫生学院营养与食品卫生教研室,上海 200032 
陈姜枫 复旦大学 公共卫生学院营养与食品卫生教研室,上海 200032 
苏健光 复旦大学附属华山医院 临床营养科,上海 200040 
马妮娜 复旦大学附属华山医院 临床营养科,上海 200040 
赵超 复旦大学 基础医学院教育部医学分子病毒学重点实验室,上海 200032 
邵春海 复旦大学附属上海市第五人民医院 临床营养科,上海 200240 复旦大学附属华山医院 临床营养科,上海 200040 
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中文摘要:
      目的:对射击/射箭运动员和普通人焦虑状态进行横断面调查,初步探索运动员焦虑的原因,为运动员减轻焦虑、提高竞技水平提供参考依据。方法:选择运动员和普通人各52名,进行问卷调查和人体测量。结果:运动员的蛋白质摄入量、便秘发生率和焦虑水平均高于普通人,膳食纤维摄入量低于普通人(P<0.05);对运动员的焦虑因素分析发现焦虑运动员吸烟和已戒烟的比例高于非焦虑运动员(P<0.05);对运动员及普通人建立多重线性回归模型进行多因素分析发现,女性、体重水平高和排便频率低,可预测较高的状态-特质焦虑问卷特质部分(State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version,STAI-T)评分(P<0.05)。结论:运动员和普通人焦虑的危险因素可能为女性、体重偏重和排便频率低,而高膳食纤维摄入则可能是焦虑的保护因素。建议:运动员增加膳食纤维的摄入,以改善便秘状况,戒烟,以改变不良生活方式,有助于运动员降低焦虑状态和提高竞技水平。
英文摘要:
      This study aims to provide reference basis for athletes to reduce anxiety and improve their competitive level by compares the differences of anxiety between shooters/archers and ordinary people through cross-sectional investigation to preliminarily explores the causes of athletes' anxiety. The study conducts questionnaire survey and anthropometry with 52 shooting/archery athletes and 52 ordinary people in Shanghai. The athletes consumed significantly (P<0.05) more dietary protein, higher incidence of constipation, and higher anxiety levels, but less dietary fiber than the ordinary people. The smoking and quit smoking of anxious athletes is 37.6%, which is higher than non-anxious athletes by 19.4% (P<0.05). Multiple linear regression model for athletes and ordinary people shows that high dietary fiber intake could predict lower State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version (STAI-T) scores, but female gender, high weight level, and low bowel movements predicted higher STAI-T scores (P<0.05). Risk factors for anxiety in athletes and the ordinary people may are female gender, excess body weight, and infrequent bowel movements, while high dietary fiber intake may be protective factors for anxiety. It suggests that athletes increase the intake of dietary fiber to improve constipation, and quit smoking to change unhealthy lifestyles, which will help athletes reduce anxiety and improve their competitive level.
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