兴奋剂样本检测阳性案件中品格证据的适用
The Application of Character Evidence in Cases Involving Positive Doping Samples
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.2022030204
中文关键词:品格证据  兴奋剂样本检测阳性  主观心态
英文关键词:character evidence  positive doping samples  subjective state of mind
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目(20CTY010)
作者单位
章语馨 苏州大学 王健法学院,江苏 苏州 215006 
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中文摘要:
      在兴奋剂样本检测呈阳性的案件中,运动员往往会从主观心态着手,主张无过错或无重大过错,或者至少是非故意。为了证明这类主张,运动员通常会提出品格证据,国际体育仲裁院(CAS)仲裁庭也几乎都认可运动员有权提出品格证据。然而仲裁庭对品格证据的采纳仍然存在着诸多问题,例如对于某些特定的案件能否适用品格证据,不同的仲裁庭有不同的看法,同时清白声明的证明逻辑不严谨,品格证据的认定标准也不一致,这些都会使裁决结果难以令人信服。由于品格证据存在一定的局限性,CAS仲裁庭应当始终对其保持谨慎的态度,可以在适当参考刑事诉讼中品格证据规则的基础上,进一步规范品格证据的适用。具体而言,CAS仲裁庭有必要将品格证据的适用限定在运动员欲证明非故意又无法确定禁用物质来源的案件,并明确品格证据在认定运动员的主观心态时只能起到辅助作用。此外,为了维护公平公正和规则的一致性,CAS仲裁庭应当考虑各方面的因素,更加客观地认定各类品格证据。
英文摘要:
      In cases involving positive doping samples, athletes will often start with the subjective state of mind, claiming that they bear No Fault or No Significant Fault, or alternatively, claiming that the use of the Prohibited Substance is not intentional. Athletes will usually adduce character evidence to prove such claims, and the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) panels have almost always accepted that athletes are entitled to adduce character evidence. However, there are still problems with the adoption of character evidence, for example, different panels have different views on whether character evidence can be applied in particular cases, the logic of proof for assertion of innocence is not rigorous and the standards for determining character evidence vary, all of which can make the arbitral awards unconvincing. The CAS panels should always be cautious about character evidence due to its limitations, and could further regulate its application with reference to the rules on character evidence in criminal proceedings. First, in the doping cases where a Prohibited Substance is found in the Athletes' body, CAS panels should only accept character evidence when the Athletes try to establish that the use of the Prohibited Substance is not intentional and cannot identify the exact source of the Prohibited Substance. What's more, it should be made clear that character evidence can only play a supporting role in determining the Athlete's subjective state of mind. Last but not least, to maintain fairness and justice, as well as the consistency of the rules, CAS panels should consider all aspects of character evidence in a more objective manner.
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