与青少年有氧能力相关的10个问题
Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness
投稿时间:2017-11-03  
DOI:
中文关键词:青少年  儿童  摄氧量动力学  峰值  摄氧量
英文关键词:Adolescents  children  oxygen uptake kinetics  peak oxygen uptake
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
Neil Armstrong(英) 埃克隆大学儿童健康与运动研究中心 N.Armstrong@exeter.ac.uk 
朱为模 审校 美国伊利诺伊大学 weimozhu@uiuc.edu 
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中文摘要:
      峰值摄氧量(pVO2)是国际公认的青少年有氧能力评估标准,尽管有近八十年的青少年数据,但对它的解释以及它与青少年儿童成长和成熟过程中其他健康相关变量的关系,仍存在争议。有关青少年有氧能力可训练性的争论从未停止,仍然需要解决训练导致变化的因果机制以及根据年龄、生物性成熟、性别等因素进行调整。青少年日常体育活动的特点是间歇性进行和强度的迅速变化,但大多数青少年很少进行用来确定峰值摄氧量的强度和持续时间的体育活动。在这个背景下,肺部摄氧量的瞬态动力学就可以最好地反映青少年的有氧能力。对不同强度运动开始时青少年肺部摄氧量动力学的严格研究非常少,而在运动强度的阶跃变化中,实足年龄、生物性成熟和性别因素的影响并没有得到充分证实。了解青少年肺部摄氧量动力学参数的可训练性主要基于对运动员和非运动员的少量比较研究,对训练导致变化的根本机制仍需进一步探索。文章的目标是对成长和成熟过程中的有氧能力提供简要概述,提高对其评估和解释争议的认识,找出知识差距,提出10个相关的研究问题,并指出未来研究的潜在领域。
英文摘要:
      Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth aerobic fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of traininginduced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved. The daily physical activity of youth is characterized by intermittent bouts and rapid changes in intensity, but physical activity of the intensity and duration required to determine peak VO2 is rarely (if ever) experienced by most youth. In this context, it may therefore be the transient kinetics of pulmonary VO2 that best reflect youth aerobic fitness. There are remarkably few rigorous studies of youth pulmonary VO2 kinetics at the onset of exercise in different intensity domains, and the influence of chronological age, biological maturation, and sex during step changes in exercise intensity are not confidently documented. Understanding the trainability of the parameters of youth pulmonary VO2 kinetics is primarily based on a few comparative studies of athletes and nonathletes. The underlying mechanisms of changes due to training require further exploration. The aims of the present article are therefore to provide a brief overview of aerobic fitness during growth and maturation, increase awareness of current controversies in its assessment and interpretation, identify gaps in knowledge, raise 10 relevant research questions, and indicate potential areas for future research.
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