多维度监测优秀拳击运动员运动疲劳的应用研究
Application Research of Multi-dimensional Monitoring on Sports Fatigue of Elite Boxers
投稿时间:2019-05-29  
DOI:
中文关键词:拳击  运动疲劳  心率变异性  心理问卷
英文关键词:boxing  sports fatigue  HRV  psychological questionnaire
基金项目:上海市体育局科技攻关项目(14JT026)
作者单位E-mail
王金昊 上海体育科学研究所 wangjinhao28@163.com 
邱俊 上海体育科学研究所 qiujung@hotmail.com 
陈帅 上海体育科学研究所  
王连方 上海市竞技体育训练管理中心  
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中文摘要:
      目的:观察拳击运动员大负荷训练前后生理生化指标、心理学指标和HRV指标的变化,多维度监测拳击运动员的运动疲劳。方法:本研究以6名优秀拳击运动员为对象,分别在4周赛前训练阶段开始前和结束后(大赛前6周至大赛前2周)的调整休息次日晨空腹采肘静脉血,测量白细胞、红细胞、血红蛋白、血清睾酮、皮质醇浓度,并在采血当日测量清晨醒后晨脉和心率变异性,在早饭后填写运动心理疲劳问卷(ABQ)。结果:(1)4周赛前大负荷训练后血清睾酮、睾酮与皮质醇比值较训练前显著降低(-38%、-52.7%,P<0.01),血清皮质醇和晨脉均显著升高(+32.4%、+20.4%,P<0.05);(2)ABQ调查显示,4周赛前大负荷训练后运动员成就感降低、运动的负评价、心理疲劳Z加权总分较训练前显著升高(P<0.05、P<0.05、P<0.01);(3)心率变异性分析显示,4周赛前大负荷训练后lnLF、LF/HF较训练前显著升高(P<0.05)。结论:四周赛前大负荷训练后优秀拳击运动员机体运动疲劳以机体合成代谢小于分解代谢、心脏承受训练负荷能力降低为特点,运动心理疲劳加剧以成就感降低、运动的负评价升高为特征,lnLF、LF/HF升高提示交感神经和副交感神经失衡倾向于交感神经活动占优势。生理生化、心理指标与HRV结合可较全面监测拳击项目运动疲劳。
英文摘要:
      Objective: To observe the changes in physiological, biochemical, psychological and HRV indexes of boxers before and after the heavy load training, and to carry out a multi-dimensional monitoring on sports fatigue of elite boxers. Method: Six elite boxers were selected as subjects. Elbow venous blood was collected on an empty stomach before the 4-week pre-competition training (from 6 to 2 weeks before the competition) and on the following morning of rest after the training so as to measure white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), blood testosterone (T), testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C). On the day of blood collection, the morning pulse and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured after the subjects woke up in the morning, and then the athlete burnout questionnaire (ABQ) was filled out after breakfast. Results: 1) After 4 weeks' heavy load pre-competition training, T and T/C decreased by 38% and 52.7% (P < 0.01), C and morning pulse increased by 32.4% and 20.4% respectively (P < 0.05). 2) After 4 weeks' heavy load pre-competition training, the ABQ results showed that the sense of achievement decreased, the negative evaluation of sports, and the z-weighted total score of psychological fatigue increased significantly compared with those before the training (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01). 3) The analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) suggested that lnLF and LF/HF significantly increased after 4 weeks' heavy load pre-competition training (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Elite boxers showed a certain degree of fatigue after the four weeks' heavy load pre-competition training, which is characterized by less anabolic than catabolic metabolism and decreased cardiac capacity to bear training load. Psychological fatigue is characterized by lower sense of achievements and higher negative evaluation of sports. The increase of lnLF and LF/HF suggests there is sympathetic and parasympathetic imbalance with Preference for sympathetic activities. Combining physiological, biochemical and psychological indexes with HRV can monitor the sport fatigue of boxers comprehensively.
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