美国中学与大学体育的管理机制与司法治理
The Governance Mechanism and Judicial Control of Interscholastic and Intercollegiate Sports in USA
投稿时间:2019-04-29  
DOI:
中文关键词:学校体育  全国大学体育联合会  宪法  反垄断法  司法审查
英文关键词:interscholastic and intercollegiate sports  NCAA  constitution  antitrust law  judicial review
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
Matthew J. Mitten 美国国家体育法研究所 matt.mitten@marquette.edu 
郭树理 美国马凯特大学 国家体育法研究所 shuli@suda.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      体育作为中学课外活动的教育内容之一,主要由美国各州政府自行管理,各州的中学也组成了高中体育管理联合会来制定和执行校际体育活动的有关规则。美国法院遵循司法谦抑原则,通常不会干预联合会的决定,除非决定所依据的规则或所依据的程序违反了成文法,或侵犯了联邦或州宪法规定的基本权利。大学校际体育由大学自发组成的各种联合会进行管理,其中最重要的是全国大学体育联合会(NCAA),NCAA以维持大学体育的业余性、保证体育作为高等教育的有机组成部分为宗旨,有权制定和强制实施各项规则及处罚。NCAA不是政府组织,无法对其管理大学体育的行为适用美国联邦宪法,但可以适用美国联邦反垄断法。
英文摘要:
      Interscholastic athletics which is an extracurricular activity that is part of the secondary education traditionally provided and regulated by individual states in USA. Interscholastic athletics are largely regulated under the rules formulated by individual state athletic associations composed of member high schools. The USA courts are very deferential and will provide judicial relief only if the challenged rule, application, or enforcement is found to be arbitrary and capricious or violates an applicable federal or state constitutional law provision or statute. Intercollegiate athletics are governed by the intercollegiate athletics associations composed of member colleges and universities, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is the most important intercollegiate athletics association in USA. NCAA seeks to preserve the amateur nature of intercollegiate sports as a component part of high education. NCAA has the authority to exercise the formulating and plenary power to intercollegiate athletics. As NCAA is not a state actor, the US federal constitution does not apply to its governance of intercollegiate sports but the federal antitrust law does.
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