从“性别验证”到“参赛资格限制”——女性运动员“性别”政策的发展
Sports Fairness or Violation of Basic Human Rights?—A Legal Analysis of Female Athletes' Qualification Restrictions
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20200603
中文关键词:体育  公平  性别  体育权利  体育法治
英文关键词:sport  fairness  gender  sports right  the rule of law in sports
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目(18BTY071)。
作者单位
姜熙 上海政法学院 体育法治研究院,上海 201701 
罗香琴 上海市闵行区人民法院,上海 201199 
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中文摘要:
      运用文献资料、案例分析等方法,系统梳理了女性运动员的“性别验证”政策、参赛资格限制政策的历史发展脉络、规则的具体内容。发现:女性运动员“性别”政策已经从“性别验证”政策转变为基于特定生理指标的参赛资格限制政策,这一转变使得国际体育领域的女性运动员“性别”政策变得日益复杂化,尤其是国际田径联合会的《雄激素过多症规则》《性别发展差异运动员规则》涉嫌侵犯特定女性运动员的健康权、隐私权和不受歧视的权利,与国际人权标准相悖,将面临诸多的法律挑战。
英文摘要:
      Based on methods of literature review and case study, this paper systematically analyzed the historical development of the "gender verification" policy and the qualification restriction policy for female athletes, as well as the contents of the rules. It is found that the "gender" policy for female athletes has changed from "gender verification" to the qualification restriction based on specific physiological indicators. This change makes the "gender" policy for female athletes in the international sports field increasingly complicated. The IAAF Regulations Governing Eligibility of Females with Hyperandrogenism to Compete in Women's Competition and the Eligibility Regulations for the Female Classification are even suspected of infringing on the health, privacy, and non-discrimination rights of some female athletes. The regulations are believed to go against the international standards of human rights and will face many legal challenges.
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