2010—2019年赛艇世界顶尖比赛配速策略
Pacing Strategy in World Elite Rowing Races from 2010 to 2019
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.20210112
中文关键词:赛艇  配速  演变  成绩水平  比赛类型  奥运备战
英文关键词:rowing  pace  evolution  performance level  competition type  Olympic preparation
基金项目:上海市科委科研计划项目(18080503400);上海高层次海外人才项目(TP2017063);国家体育总局奥运备战“直通车”科研项目。
作者单位
易清 上海体育学院 体育教育训练学院,上海 200438 
熊剑亮 清华大学 经济管理学院,北京 100084 。 
黎涌明 上海体育学院 体育教育训练学院,上海 200438 
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中文摘要:
      运动员在比赛中对身体能量的分配称为配速策略。现有关于赛艇配速策略的研究结论不一,来源数据陈旧,对我国赛艇东京奥运会备战的参考性有限。本研究旨在探究近十年来赛艇世界顶尖比赛的配速策略。从国际赛艇联合会官方网站采集2010—2019年间历届奥运会和世锦赛决赛A的分段时间数据,分析我国已获得奥运会参赛资格的6个艇种(W1×、W2-、W2×、M2×、W4×和M4×)对应4个比赛分段(500 m×4,分别对应为Q1~Q4)的相对速度(相对于全程比赛速度的百分比),并探究其在2010—2019年的变化趋势、不同成绩水平间[水平1(第1名)vs.水平2(第2~3名),水平1(第1名)vs.水平3(第4~6名),水平2(第2~3名)vs.水平3(第4~6名)]的差异、不同赛事(奥运会vs.世锦赛)间的差异。结果:(1)过去十年内各艇种Q1~Q4的相对速度整体稳定;(2)各艇种在各比赛分段的相对速度方面,除了W2×的水平1和水平3在Q3存在显著差异,3个成绩水平之间都不存在显著差异;(3)各艇种在各比赛分段的相对速度方面,奥运会vs.世锦赛间无显著差异(W2-的Q2除外);(4)W1×、W2-、W2×、M2×、W4×和M4×在Q1~Q4的平均速度分别约为102%、99%、98%~99%和99%~101%。结论:2010—2019年,6个赛艇艇种在奥运会和世锦赛决赛A中的配速策略整体稳定,决赛A不同成绩水平间的配速策略类似,奥运会与世锦赛的配速策略类似。
英文摘要:
      Pacing strategy refers to the distribution of athletes' energy during the course of a race. Results from previous research have limited reference for the Chinese national rowing teams preparing for the Tokyo Olympic Games, due to the inconsistency among studies and the outdated datasets. This study aimed to investigate the pacing strategies in the world elite rowing races from 2010 to 2019. The official results of the finals A from 2 Olympic regattas and 8 World Rowing Championships during the period of 2010 to 2019 were collected from the official website of World Rowing Federation (FISA). The relative speed (relative to the overall average speed) of four quarters (500 m×4,Q1~Q4) from those 6 events (W1×、W2-、W2×、M2×、W4× and M4×) that qualified for the Tokyo Olympic Games were analysed, so as to explore the evolving trends of each quarter, and the differences in pacing strategy among teams of different levels (level1:1st vs. level 2: 2nd~3rd, level1:1st vs. level 2: 4th~6th, level 2: 2nd~3rd vs. level 3: 4th~6th) and types of competitions (Olympic regattas vs. World Championships) over the last decade. Results: (1) the relative speed of 4 quarters of 6 events displayed a stable performance over the last 10 years; (2) there were no significant differences observed among three levels, except for the comparison between level 1 and level 3 from W2× in Q3; (3) no difference in each quarter exists between Olympic regattas and World Championships (except for the Q2 of W2-); (4) the average relative speed of 4 quarters of W1×, W2-, W2×, M2×, W4× and M4× could be described as: 102%, 99%, 98~99% and 99~101%. Conclusions: over the last 10 years, the pacing strategy rowers adopted in the finals A of 6 events remains stable in general, the pacing strategy adopted by different levels of teams and in different types of competitions were similar.
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