美国兴奋剂检测与运动员权利保护
Drug Testing and Protection of Athletes′ Rights in the United States
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.2022083101
中文关键词:兴奋剂检测  运动员权利  法律保护  美国
英文关键词:drug test  athlete right  legal protection  United States
基金项目:国家社会科学基金重大项目(20&ZD337)
作者单位
John T.Wolohan(美) 雪城大学 戴维德B.福克运动与人类动态学院,纽约 13244 
向会英(译) 上海政法学院 体育法治研究院,上海 201701 
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中文摘要:
      在美国,从高中生到职业体育运动员都试图通过使用性能增强药物(PEDs)和/或方法,包括促红细胞生成素(EPO)、输血、睾酮、皮质类固醇及掩蔽剂,以获得比赛中的优势。为了保证公平竞赛和运动员健康,体育组织要求运动员遵守各种药物检测规则,并在每个级别的比赛中都有一系列法律措施来保护运动员。从学校体育(高中校际和大学校际)、业余体育(国际奥委会)和职业体育层面审视了体育管理者和组织为保护体育而实施的各种药物检测项目,除了这些组织间存在许多利益冲突外,还探讨了体育组织在忙于消除体育中使用兴奋剂时,是否侵犯了它们试图保护的运动员权利。
英文摘要:
      In the United States athletes from high school to professional sports have sought to gain an advantage in competition by using performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) and/or methods including EPO, blood transfusions, testosterone, corticosteroids, and masking agents. To ensure fair competition and the athlete′s health, athletic organizations subject athletes to various drug testing rules. At each level of competition, there are also a series of legal safeguards in place to protect the athletes. The article examines various drug testing programs athletic administrators and organizations from the interscholastic, intercollegiate, amateur(the International Olympic Committee), and professional levels have implemented to protect sports. In addition to the conflict of interest many of these organizations have, the article also examines whether in their haste to rid sports of performance-enhancing drugs, sports organizations may be violating the rights of the very athletes they are trying to protect.
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