上海部分运动项目运动员不同季节维生素D的营养状况
Comparison of Vitamin D Status of Shanghai Athletes from Different Sport Disciplines in Different Seasons
  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.2020051301
中文关键词:上海运动员  运动项目  季节  维生素D
英文关键词:Shanghai athletes  sports  female  season  Vitamin D
基金项目:2019年上海市科委科研项目(19DZ1200700);2018年上海市科委科研项目(18DZ1200600)
作者单位
王晨 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心),上海 200030 
侯彬 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心),上海 200030 
徐倩 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心),上海 200030 
王玺 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心),上海 200030 
王贝 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心),上海 200030 
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中文摘要:
      目的:通过调查分析上海部分运动项目运动员不同季节维生素D的营养状况,为制定合理的预防及改善措施、科学设计运动训练计划、促进运动员身体健康并提高运动成绩提供客观依据。方法:女子足球、女子排球、女子体操共45名上海职业运动员,分别在冬季、春季、夏季、秋季的季中月末4次空腹抽取静脉血进行血清25-(OH)D水平的测试,分析这些项目运动员不同季节体内25-(OH)D水平及维生素D营养状况。结果:(1)上海女子足球、女子排球、女子体操运动员维生素D水平缺乏及不足的情况均较为严重,且不同季节间存在显著性差异,25-(OH)D整体水平秋季和春季相对较高,冬季和夏季相对较低,其中秋季维生素D正常率最高,缺乏率最低;冬季维生素D正常率最低,缺乏率最高;(2)室内项目上海女排运动员及体操运动员冬季维生素D缺乏率最高,且无人达到正常水平;体操运动员4个季节的维生素D缺乏率均明显高于女排和女足运动员,且四季均无人达到正常水平;(3)室外项目上海女足运动员秋季25-(OH)D水平最高,维生素D正常率也最高,且无人缺乏;夏季维生素D缺乏率最高,并显著低于室内项目上海女排运动员的体内水平。结论:上海部分项目运动员维生素D营养状况缺乏及不足的问题广泛存在,在夏季不同运动项目,尤其是室外项目女足运动员,及体操运动员四季维生素D不足及缺乏问题不容忽视,定期检测运动员25-(OH)D水平来评估体内维生素D营养状况十分重要。建议:(1)需加强运动员和教练员的宣传教育工作,保证运动员不同季节充足、合理的日晒时间;(2)冬季是需要补充维生素D的主要季节,体操运动员尤其要注意维生素D强化食品或适量的维生素D制剂的补充。
英文摘要:
      Objective To evaluate vitamin D(VD) status of Shanghai athletes from some different sport disciplines in different seasons, providing basis for specialized nutrition and training plans to improve their health and sports performance. Methods Forty-five Shanghai professional athletes from different sport disciplines, including female soccer, female volleyball and gymnastics, were tested on the serum 25-(OH)D levels at the end of the second month of four individual seasons. Results: (1) Shanghai athletes tested generally had VD deficiency or insufficiency. There were significant differences between seasons. The 25-(OH)D level was relatively high in autumn and spring, relatively low in summer and winter, with the highest VD normal rate (31.1%) and the lowest VD deficiency rate (17.8%) in autumn and the lowest VD normal rate (6.7%) and the highest VD deficiency rate (60.0%) in winter; (2) Shanghai female volleyball athletes and gymnasts had the lowest average 25-(OH)D level and the highest VD deficiency rate (53.3%, 93.3%), and no one reached VD normal levels in winter. The VD deficiency rate in gymnasts was significantly higher than female soccer and volleyball players in all four seasons, and no any gymnasts reached normal levels at all time recorded; (3) Shanghai female soccer athletes had the highest 25-(OH)D level and the highest VD normal rate (53.3%), and no one is deficient in VD in autumn; Their VD deficiency rate was the highest (66.7%) in summer, and the level of 25-(OH)D in summer was even lower than indoor female volleyball athletes. Conclusions: (1) Shanghai athletes tested were vulnerable to VD deficiency or insufficiency. VD deficiency was also common in summer months in all sports measured, especially in outdoor athletes. The problem of VD deficiency or insufficiency in gymnasts in four seasons was not negligible. The routine 25-(OH)D test to evaluate VD status is very important for athletes; (2) It is necessary to educate and encourage athletes to expose enough bare skin to sufficient and reasonable sunlight in different seasons; (3) Winter is the major season requiring vitamin D supplement. Gymnasts must be especially aware of taking VD-fortified food or appropriate supplement.
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