体育新课标要求心率达到140~160次/min,依据充分吗?——对新版《体育与健康课程标准》运动强度要求的辨正
140-160 Heart Beats per Minute? Discussion on Exercise Intensity Requirements in the New Edition of National Physical Education and Health Curriculum Standards
投稿时间:2023-05-24  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.2023052401
中文关键词:运动强度  中高强度  体育课  心率  体育与健康课程标准  高强度间歇训练  运动训练学
英文关键词:exercise intensity  moderate-to-vigorous intensity  physical education course  heart rate  National Physical Education and Health Curriculum Standards  HIIT  theories of sport training
基金项目:国家社科基金重点项目(19ATY003)
作者单位
熊文 华东师范大学 体育与健康学院上海 200241 
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中文摘要:
      普通高中、义务教育新版《体育与健康课程标准》先后提出每节体育课(所有)学生平均心率要达到140~160次/min的强度要求,有关文献随之提出诸多“依据”,然其并未平息理论和实践中的疑虑。基于此,对这些依据予以剖析和辨明,并对体育课运动强度的运用、标准研制等议题予以反思。其中的问题也表明,当下理论和实践中对运动强度这一运动训练学核心概念的认识还存在缺失和误区,故有关探讨、论点也是对运动强度及运动训练学理论的修正和补充。认为:相关依据存在引用不当(如片面引用、更改原文)、推算错误、出处不明、研究设计有误,及逻辑、学理偏差等问题。这些问题指向相关强度的取值及特定“中高强度”的价值、作用,涉及运动的适宜心率强度、国内外体育课的心率要求、特定“中高强度”对身心健康(含体能或身体素质)发展及核心素养形成的作用等主题,包括在实证或引证中误将特定“中高强度”(含高强度间歇训练)作为多项体能或身体素质发展的要素。提出:①需明确(中高)心率强度在运动训练与体育教学中的定位。心率强度属于内部-生理强度,区别于外部-专项化强度,并非外在体技能发展的因果性要素或直接-敏感指标;中高强度主要指向心肺耐力(或心肺适能),应与体育教学、体能发展、运动项目开展、德育等价值目标保持合理张力。②难以且不宜对每(整)节体育课研制或提出统一的强度标准,但可基于心肺耐力等锻炼效应提出适当的中高强度时间要求。
英文摘要:
      The new version of National Physical Education and Health Curriculum Standards for senior high schools and compulsory education has successively proposed that the average heart rate of all students in each physical education class should reach an intensity requirement of 140-160 beats per minute. Some literature has then come up with theoretical justifications, but they remain to be proved in theory and practice. In view of the confusion, this article attempts to examine these justifications, and reflects on issues such as the use of exercise intensity and the development of exercise intensity standards in physical education courses. Meanwhile, both in theory and practice, there are still deficiencies and errors in the current understanding of exercise intensity which is the core concept of sports training. Therefore, the discussions and arguments here could also be revisions and supplements of exercise intensity and sports training theories. The study holds that the existing justifications have problems such as improper reference (e.g., selective citation, alteration of the original text), incorrect inference, unknown sources, flawed research design, logical and theoretical deviations. These problems are related to exercise intensity requirements, as well as the value and role of "moderate-to-vigorous intensity", covering topics such as the reasonable heart rate intensity, the heart rate requirements in physical education class at home and abroad, and the influence of "moderate-to-vigorous intensity" on "physical and mental health" (including physical fitness or physical quality) and core literacy cultivation, including specific intensity experiments and the empirical evidence or citations of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). It is finally proposed that: It is urgent to define the orientation of heart rate intensity in sports training and physical education. Distinct from external-specialized intensity, heart rate intensity is an internal-physiological intensity which is not a causal element or direct-sensitive indicator of external physical fitness and skill development. Heart rate intensity, mainly related to cardiorespiratory endurance, should maintain a reasonable connection with other value goals of physical education (teaching, physical fitness development, sports projects development, moral cultivation). It is difficult and inappropriate to develop or propose a unified intensity standard for all physical education classes; but a certain "moderate-to-vigorous intensity" exercise period can be imposed in the class based on the development of cardiorespiratory endurance.
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