大强度间歇训练与一般有氧训练对男子皮艇运动员神经-免疫应答特征的比较
Comparison of Neuroimmune Response Characteristics between High Intensity Intermittent Training and General Aerobic Training in Male Kayakers
投稿时间:2022-09-07  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.2022090701
中文关键词:有氧训练  高强度间歇训练  心率变异性  淋巴细胞亚群  儿茶酚胺
英文关键词:aerobic training  high intensity interval training  heart rate variability  lymphocyte subsets  catecholamine
基金项目:上海市“科技创新行动计划”项目(22dz1204601);上海市“科技创新行动计划”项目(22dz1204902)
作者单位
王玉新 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心)上海 200030 
施田佳媛 上海体育大学 体育教育学院上海 200438 
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中文摘要:
      目的:比较大强度间歇训练(HIIT)和一般有氧训练(AT)2种训练方法的神经-免疫应答特征差异。方法:以8名一线男子皮艇运动员为研究对象,HIIT和AT各进行2周训练,每周9节训练课,训练量基本保持一致;对两种训练方法前、后的测定指标进行比较。分别在HIIT和AT前、后次日晨6:30安静状态下进行仰卧位短时程5 min心率变异性测试,并在测试结束即刻空腹安静状态下取肘静脉血,用于测量淋巴细胞亚群和血浆儿茶酚胺。结果:2周训练后,AT组和HIIT组心率变异性(HRV)时域指标R-R间期标准差(SDNN)、相邻R-R间期差值均方根(RMSSD)、相邻间期的差值标准差(SDSD)和频域指标总功率(TP)、高频功率(HF)、低频功率(LF)均有不同幅度变化,但均无统计学意义,且AT组和HIIT组间无交互效应;AT组T%、CD8+%和HIIT组B%、CD4+%、CD4+/CD8+均有显著差异,且AT组和HIIT组间B%、CD4+%、CD8+%和CD4+/CD8+有显著交互效应;AT组和HIIT组ADR、NE有不同幅度变化,但均无统计学差异;AT组和HIIT组间NE有显著交互效应。结论:与AT相比,HIIT对免疫系统产生影响更大,但两者对神经系统影响均较小。在竞技体育训练过程中,运动员进行HIIT后,建议及时通过饮食、营养品等手段进行干预,避免运动员出现免疫功能下降的现象。
英文摘要:
      Purpose: To compare the characteristics of nerve immune response between two-week high-intensity interval training(HIIT) and general aerobic training (AT). Method: Eight male kayakers were administered HIIT for two-week and AT for two-week. With nine training classes per week, and the training load was basically the same. The characteristics of the nerve immune response before and after conducting the two training methods were compared. Specifically, a supine short duration 5-min heart rate variability test was performed in the following morning 6:30 in their quiet state before and after HIIT and AT respectively, and antecubital venous blood was taken in fasting quiet state immediately before the test was completed and used to measure lymphocyte subsets and plasma catecholamines. Results. After 2 weeks of training, the HRV time-domain indicators SDNN, RMSSD, SDSD and frequency-domain indicators TP, HF, LF in the AT and HIIT groups showed different magnitude changes, but none of them were statistically significant, and there was no interaction effect between the AT and HIIT groups; T%, CD8+% in AT group and B%, CD4+% and CD4+/CD8+ in HIIT group showed statistically significant differences, and B%, CD4+%, CD8+% and CD4+/CD8+ had significant interaction effects between AT group and HIIT group; ADR and NE in AT group and HIIT had different amplitude changes, but there was no statistical difference; There was significant interaction between NE in AT group and HIIT group. Conclusion: Compared with general aerobic training, high-intensity interval training has a greater impact on the immune system, but both have a smaller impact on the nervous system. In the process of High-performance sport training, after high-intensity interval training, it is suggested to intervene through diet, nutrition and other means in time to avoid the phenomenon of decreased immune function of athletes.
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